Take good look at these gals. The gal on the left (in blue) looks like she has a level pelvis, but look at the upper body. She’s leaning to the left and has a great deal of torso rotation backward. One of the clues is the abduction of her left arm. Also note how her right arm crosses across her body. We wonder how she looks in right foot stance.

The gal on the left (in red) has a subtle dip of the right side of her pelvis and also has over rotation of her upper body. Her right on crossing the body is a good reason to believe she will have a crossover gait if viewed from straight on.

While both of these gals may have adequate strength, we question how much endurance they have as well as available rotation in the hips and lumbar spine.

This is an excellent, referenced review of some of the current literature and controversy of strength and injury risk. A good read and certainly worth your time to get caught up on what’s current. We would love to see you study on endurance and injury risk.

“While muscle strength may improve tolerance of loads during running, another reason for inconsistencies in the reported relationships between strength and injury risk may be that strength is typically assessed isometrically. It’s unclear how much of an influence peak isometric strength has on the dynamic task of running, and specifically on prolonged running in the presence of muscular fatigue. Schmitz et al found that, while isometric hip strength values were similar between novice and experienced runners, hip internal rotation motion during running was higher in the novice runners, suggesting isometric strength may not correlate strongly with muscular control and kinematics during running.”

http://lermagazine.com/article/lower-extremity-strength-and-injury-risk-in-runners

Do quarter squats transfer best to sprinting?

We have always said that exercises are specific as to the type of exercise (isometric, isotonic, isokinetic) as well as the speed of exercise. And this backs that up, with a surprise:

Unexpectedly, QUARTER produced superior gains in both vertical jump height and 40-yard sprint running times, compared with both HALF and FULL. give it a read, especially the vertical jump section..

https://www.strengthandconditioningresearch.com/promotions/quarter-squats-transfer-sprinting/

Podcast 87: Podcast 87: The Kenyan’s Running Brain & “The” Anterior Compartment.

Plus, Some unknown facts about going minimalism and barefoot. We POUND anterior compartment strength today gang ! Hope you enjoy !

Show sponsors:
www.newbalancechicago.com

A. Link to our server: 
http://traffic.libsyn.com/thegaitguys/pod_87final.mp3

Direct Download: 
http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-87

Other Gait Guys stuff

B. iTunes link:
https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-gait-guys-podcast/id559864138

C. Gait Guys online /download store (National Shoe Fit Certification and more !) :
http://store.payloadz.com/results/results.aspx?m=80204

D. other web based Gait Guys lectures:
Monthly lectures at : www.onlinece.com   type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen,  ”Biomechanics”

Show notes:

On high heels and short muscles: A multiscale model for sarcomere loss in the gastrocnemius muscle

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022519314006262

The Brain Needs Oxygen

Maintained cerebral oxygenation during maximal self-paced exercise in elite Kenyan runners.

http://www.runnersworld.com/racing/the-brain-needs-oxygen
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25414248
J Appl Physiol (1985). 2014 Nov 20:jap.00909.2014. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00909.2014. [Epub ahead of print]

The texting lane in China
http://www.theguardian.com/world/shortcuts/2014/sep/15/china-mobile-phone-lane-distracted-walking-pedestrians

Dialogue on endurance training,
NeuroRehabilitation. 2006;21(1):43-50. 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16720937

Effects of dorsiflexor endurance exercises on foot drop secondary to multiple sclerosis.  Mount J1, Dacko S.

APOS Therapy
we were asked out opinion on this
http://apostherapy.com/

Foot instrinsic dialogue
Motor Control. 2014 Jul 15. [Epub ahead of print]

Quantifying the Contributions of a Flexor Digitorum Brevis Muscle on Postural Stability.
Okai LA1, Kohn AF.

There are many factors in adults that impair gait. It is not all biomechanical. This is part of our ongoing dialogue on the aging population and why gait impairments and falls are so prevalent.
Acta Bioeng Biomech. 2014;16(1):3-9.
Differences in gait pattern between the elderly and the young during level walking under low illumination.
Choi JS, Kang DW, Shin YH, Tack GR.


Subtle clues often provide the answers.

We like yoga as much as anyone else. We saw this picture on the latest cover and couldn’t resist making a few comments on this pose.

Yoga has many benefits. Our understanding is that in addition to the cognitive and spiritual effects of yoga, is that it helps to build your core.

 At first look you may say that this woman has a few issues:

  • she has a right pelvic shift and a left body lean
  • She has slight head rotation to the right and a slight left head tilt
  • you may have noticed that she appears to have more tone in the musculature on the right side of her face than on the left.   Just look at the nasolabial fold as well as the corner of her mouth any area of wrinkling underneath her left orbit.
  •  You may have also noticed the subtle flexion and lack of external rotation of the right hip.

 You may go on and think that she has a week right gluteus medius as well as an overactive quadratus lumborum on the left-hand side which may be causing the pelvic shift. The head tilt may be in compensation for the right side gluteus medius weakness and the subtle rotation may be an attempt to engage a tonic neck response. ( a tonic neck response is  ipsilateral extension of the upper and lower extremity to the side of head rotation with contralateral flexion of the same counterparts.

 You may have also noticed that the toes of the right foot are not dorsiflexed and that her hair appears to be flowing on the right side, and this is not the case at all, but rather she is either standing on a sloped surface or on the downward phase of a jump. According to the magazine it is the latter.  If you caught this at first then congratulations: you are sharper than most. If not remember to always look for subtle clues.

 Like Sir Topham Hat says in Thomas the Train: “  You didn’t get the whole story. What really happened is what really matters.

So why the mild facial ptosis on the left side? She could have had an old Bells palsy, or other form of facial paresis. Note that mostly the lower portions of the (left) face are affected (ie, below the eye). We remember that the upper portions of the face receive bilateral innervation but lower portions of the face unilateral innervation, from the contra lateral facial motor nucleus; this is why it could be a mild upper motor neuron lesion (micro infact, lack of cortical afferent input) and not an lower motor neuron lesion (like Bells Palsy). Why is this germane? Or is it not?

Stand in front of a mirror. Jump up in the air trying to assume the same pose as this woman does and what do you see.  Make sure that you jump up from both legs and then bring one leg over and your hands in front of you in the “praying position”. You may want to have a friend take a snapshot of you performing this. You will notice that you have contralateral head rotation,  a pelvic hike on the side opposite the leg that’s extended and a head tilt to the side that is flexed.  You are attempting to stabilize your core as you’re going up and coming down.

What we are witnessing is a normal neurological phenomena.  This gal merely seems to have some limited external rotation of her left hip. Now perform the same maneuver again but this time don’t externally rotate your leg as far as this woman does and what do you see. You should’ve seen an increase in the aforementioned body postures.

Subtle clues are often the key. Keep your eyes and ears open. 

The Gait Guys. Helping the subtle to become everyday for you, with each and every post.

Take this simple test. 

Want to be faster? Better incorporate some proprioceptive training into your plan. It is the 1st part of our mantra: Skill, Endurance, and Strength (in that order). Proprioceptive training appears to be more important that strength or endurance training from an injury rehabilitation perspective as well part of an injury prevention program

 What is proprioception? It is body position awareness; ie: knowing what your limbs are doing without having to look at them.

Take this simple test:

  • Stand in a doorway with your shoes off. Keep your arms up at your sides so that you can brace yourself in case you start to fall. Lift your toes slightly so that only your foot tripod remains on the ground (ie the base of the big toe, the base of the little toe and the center of the heel.). Are you able to balance without difficulty? Good, all 3 systems (vision, vestibular and proprioceptive) are go.
  • Now close your eyes, taking away vision from the 3 systems that keep us upright in the gravitational plane. Are you able to balance for 30 seconds? If so, your vestibular and proprioceptive systems are intact.
  • Now open your eyes and look up at the ceiling. Provided you can balance without falling, now close your eyes. Extending your neck 60 degrees just took out the lateral semicircular canals of the vestibular system (see here for more info). Are you still able to balance for 30 seconds? If so, congrats; your proprioceptive system (the receptors in the joints, ligaments and muscles) is working great. If not, looks like you have some work to do. You can begin with exercises we use every day by clicking here.

Proprioception should be the 1st part of any training and/or rehabilitation program. If you don’t have a good framework to hang the rest of your training on, then you are asking for trouble. 

The Gait Guys. Your proprioceptive mentors. We want you to succeed!

acupuncture and muscle strength

“The present study shows that a single acupuncture treatment was efficacious for improving isometric quadriceps strength in recreational athletes. These results might have implications not only for athletic performance enhancement, but also for rehabilitation programs aimed at restoring neuromuscular function.”  



Wow. What a statement! If you read the abstract, you will also read this “The difference in the mean change in MIVF from baseline between acupuncture (46.6 N) and sham laser acupuncture (19.6 N) was statistically significant (p < 0.05), but no significant difference was found between acupuncture (46.6 N) and sham acupuncture (28.8 N)”  


So what was “sham acupuncture”? Simply put, acupuncture to non acupuncture meridian points. In other words, they put needles in muscles, just not on established meridians. Hmmm…Sounds alot like a form of dry needling. When you place a needle in a muscle, there is a good chance you will stimulate (or change function) of a muscle spindle or golgi tendon organ (length and tension receptors we have talked about before. see here, here, here, here, and here. guess we wrote about them a bit, eh?). Sham acupuncture still showed a positive result.                                                                  
                                                                                                                             
The bottom line? Needling the muscle changes how it contracts. It can be a useful tool for improving performance and rehabilitation.                                                                                                                                                                    
The Gait Guys. Geeks to the core. Bringing you the information to help you make better decisions with every post.  



September 2010, Volume 110, Issue 2, pp 353-358

Immediate effects of acupuncture on strength performance: a randomized, controlled crossover trial

Abstract

The present study investigated the immediate efficacy of acupuncture compared to sham acupuncture and placebo laser acupuncture on strength performance. A total of 33 recreational athletes (25.2 ± 2.8 years; 13 women) were randomized to receive acupuncture, sham acupuncture (needling at non-acupuncture points) and placebo laser acupuncture (deactivated laser device) in a double-blind crossover fashion with 1 week between trials. Assessment included bipedal drop jumps for maximum rebound height and quadriceps maximum isometric voluntary force (MIVF). Furthermore, surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure the EMG activity of the rectus femoris muscle during a 30-s sustained MIVF of the knee extensors. Mean power frequency (MPF) analysis was applied to characterize muscular endurance. Measurements were performed at baseline and immediately after treatment by a blinded investigator. Repeated measures ANOVA and post hoc paired-sample t test with Bonferroni–Holm correction were used for statistical analysis. The difference in the mean change in MIVF from baseline between acupuncture (46.6 N) and sham laser acupuncture (19.6 N) was statistically significant (p < 0.05), but no significant difference was found between acupuncture (46.6 N) and sham acupuncture (28.8 N). ANOVA did not show statistically significant treatment effects for drop jump height or MPF. The present study shows that a single acupuncture treatment was efficacious for improving isometric quadriceps strength in recreational athletes. These results might have implications not only for athletic performance enhancement, but also for rehabilitation programs aimed at restoring neuromuscular function.

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00421-010-1510-y

all material copyright 2013 The Gait Guys/ The Homunculus Group. All rights reserved.

This video pretty much sums up our entire philosophy. Skill, Endurance, Strength; in that order. Why? Skill requires the largest diameter afferent (sensory) nerves to accomplish (Ia and Ib afferents from muscle and joint mechanoreceptors); they are the fastest pathways; Endurance comes from larger sized Type I (and sometimes Type IIa) endurance muscle, which are oxygen dependent (aerobic) and are rich in myoglobin, glycogen, mitochondria and capillaries; Strength last, because it comes from smaller, Type IIb fibers, and is largely glycolytic (depends on anaerobic respiration) and is dependent on the other 2 (skill and endurance).

When you take amazing skill and body awareness and combine it with strength and flexibility and control you can do these kinds of wild things.

Exploring the links between human movement, biomechanics and gait.

The Gait Guys