Exploring the Links Between Human Movement, Biomechanics & Gait
Do you treat runners? Do you treat folks with knee pain? Patellar tracking issues? Do you treat the quadriceps? Do you realize that the vastus lateralis, in closed chain, is actually an INTERNAL rotator of the thigh (not a typo), and many folks have a loss of internal rotation of the hip? Do you give them “IT band stretches” to perform?
In this short video, Dr Ivo demonstrates some needling techniques for the quads and offers some (entertaining) clinical commentary on the IT band. A definite view for those of you who have needling in their clinical tool box.
We had a great PODcast in the studio last Friday, talking about tendon vascularity and compression vs tension therapies for tendinopathies.
Here is a great FULL TEXT article on tendon vascularity that can serve as a catalyst for designing your treatment programs
“Conclusions Neovascularization is critical to tissue repair and wound healing. Therefore, strategies to enhance vascularization to promote regeneration are considered promising treatment modalities, i.e., the use of platelet rich plasma (PRP) to restore functional bone (Zhang et al., 2013) or skin (Kakudo et al., 2011). However, in acute or chronic tendon injuries hypervascularity often does not pave the way to functional recovery of the tissue. Therefore, to overcome the limited intrinsic regeneration capacity of tendon and to achieve scarless healing will most likely require a balanced manipulation of the angiogenic response in tendon tissue. For a variety of treatment methods, such as the use of PRP, the availability of clinical data is limited, due to heterogeneity in application (Khan and Bedi, 2015). In order to develop rational strategies to achieve a well-balanced angiogenic response following tendon injury, we need a thorough understanding of the molecular and cellular networks driving tendon vascularization and regeneration—a challenge for years to come.”
Reciprocal Inhibition anyone? Thanks to The Manual Therapist (Erson Religioso) for this great post.
What they are doing here is taking advantage of what Sherrington know many years ago. Activating a muscle (agonist for a movement) will inhibit the muscle with the opposite action (antagonist for a movement), through a disynaptic, post synaptic pathway. It is a great way to gain additional movement and remove or reduce muscular inhibition. Try it!
Below are two studies that we recently incorporated into 2 neurologic gait cases during one of our global teleseminars on www.onlineCE.com. You can find that lecture there in a few weeks but we have dozens of our other presentations available there presently.
Injury to a body part starts a reorganization of the brain cortex. We know this occurs from a plethora of studies but most of them are based on injury induced changes and not from treatment-induced means. These studies support the treatment induced changes that occur in the central nervous system, and they are profound and give us comfort and validity in our work. The findings of these studies should not be a shock to you if you are in the work of manual therapy and rehab.
The one study used transcranial magnetic stimulation to map the cortical motor output area of a hand muscles on both sides in 13 stroke patients in the chronic stage of their illness before and after a 12-day-period of constraint-induced movement therapy.
What they found was “post treatment the muscle output area size in the affected hemisphere was significantly enlarged, corresponding to a greatly improved motor performance of the paretic limb”. As the study showed, this suggested a recruitment of adjacent brain areas. Even at 6 month follow up examinations “the motor performance remained at a high level, whereas the cortical area sizes in the 2 hemispheres became almost identical, representing a return of the balance of excitability between the 2 hemispheres toward a normal condition.”
The second study (2) looked at limb immobilization in 10 right-handed subjects with right upper extremity injury that required at least 14 days of limb immobilization. Subjects underwent 2 MRI examinations post injury, 48 hours and 16 days post immobilization. Cortical thickness of sensorimotor regions and FA of the corticospinal tracts was measured. The findings showed “a decrease in cortical thickness in the left primary motor and somatosensory area as well as a decrease in FA in the left corticospinal tract. In addition, the motor skill of the left (noninjured) hand improved and is related to increased cortical thickness and FA in the right motor cortex.”
These studies suggest the findings are associated with skill transfer from the right to the left hand. It was suggested that immobilization induces rapid reorganization of the sensorimotor system.
Rehab works, but everyone here on The Gait Guys already knew that. It is just nice to know the specifics of “how”.
Please go to these articles and get the specifics for yourself. Don’t take our word for it !
1. Stroke. 2000 Jun;31(6):1210-6.Treatment-induced cortical reorganization after stroke in humans. Liepert J1, Bauder H, Wolfgang HR, Miltner WH, Taub E, Weiller C.
2. Langer N, et al “Effects of limb immobilization on brain plasticity”Neurology 2012; 78: 182–188.
This simple screening test becomes a form of exercise.
Last week we explored the “Lean” test to see how your QL and gluteus medius were paired. Today we look at a simple CNS screen for your “central pattern generators” or “CPG’s”. If you do not pass, then the exercise becomes the rehab exercise. If you (or your client) does not have good coordination between the upper and lower extremity, then they will not be that efficient, physiologically or metabolically.
The “cross crawl” or “step test” looks at upper and lower extremity coordination, rather than muscular strength. If performed for a few minutes, it becomes a test that can look at endurance as well.
It is based on the “crossed extensor” response, we looked at last week. That is, when one lower limb flexes, the other extends; the contralateral upper limb also flexes and the ipsilateral upper limb extends. It mimics the way things should move when walking or running.
Stand (or have your client stand) in a place where you will not run into anything.
Begin marching in place.
Observe for a few seconds. When you (or your client) are flexing the right thigh, the left arm should flex as well; then the left thigh and right arm. Are your (their) arms moving? Are they coordinated with the lower extremity?
What happens after a few minutes? Is motion good at 1st and then breaks down?
Now speed up. What happens? Is the movement smooth and coordinated? Choppy? Discoordinated?
now slow back down and try it with your (their) eyes closed
If movement is smooth and coordinated, you (they) pass
If movement is choppy or discoordinated, there can be many causes, from simple (muscle not firing, injury) to complex (physical or physiological lesion in the CNS).
If movement is not smooth and coordinated, try doing the exercise for a few minutes a day. You can even start sitting down, if you (they) cannot perform it standing. If it improves, great; you were able to help “reprogram” the system. If not, then you (they) should seek out a qualified individual for some assistance and to get to the root of the problem.
The Gait Guys. Giving you information you can use and taking you a little deeper down the rabbit hole with each post.