What’s wrong with this picture? (Besides the fact that you probably shouldn’t run with your dog on asphalt) 

There’s been a lot of incongruency in the media as of late. This particular gal, with your head rotation to the right is going against the harmony of neurology and physiology. Let me explain…

 This particular gal, with her rotated to the right is going against the way the nervous system is designed to work.

In a post  in the last week or so (the massage cream one and  incongruent movement) we talked about tonic neck responses. When the head is rotated to one side, that upper and lower extremity should extend while the contralateral side should flex. This poor gal is fighting her own neurology! 

 Also note that she really doesn’t have that much hip extension on the right and increases her lumbar lordosis to compensate. Gee whizz. You’d a thought they would have done better…

 So much for the photo op : -) 

Rock your clinical exam!

What sensation is probably the most important to test and why?

Manipulation and Mechanoreceptors

Do YOU do joint manipulations or mobilizations? Could you explain how they are working and accomplishing what you think (or say) they are accomplishing?

All of this information applies to ANY articulation, not just the spine. This is essential information that all folks performing manipulations or mobilizations should know.

What ARE the different types of mechanoreceptors and how do they work? How does that relate to manipulation and its effects? How can mechanoreceptors inhibit pain and influence muscle tone? Dr Ivo answers these questions and more in this video, excerpted from a recent seminar. 

Podcast 103: Effects of Cold on Physiology/Athletes

Using Cold adaptation to your advantage, Walking Rehab “Carries”, Walking and Proprioception.

Show Sponsors:
newbalancechicago.com
Softscience.com

Other Gait Guys stuff

A. Podcast links:

direct download URL: http://traffic.libsyn.com/thegaitguys/pod_103f.mp3

permalink URL: http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-103-effects-of-cold-on-physiologyathletes

B. iTunes link:
https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-gait-guys-podcast/id559864138

C. Gait Guys online /download store (National Shoe Fit Certification & more !)
http://store.payloadz.com/results/results.aspx?m=80204

D. other web based Gait Guys lectures:
Monthly lectures at : www.onlinece.com type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen, ”Biomechanics”

-Our Book: Pedographs and Gait Analysis and Clinical Case Studies
Electronic copies available here:

-Amazon/Kindle:
http://www.amazon.com/Pedographs-Gait-Analysis-Clinical-Studies-ebook/dp/B00AC18M3E

-Barnes and Noble / Nook Reader:
http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/pedographs-and-gait-analysis-ivo-waerlop-and-shawn-allen/1112754833?ean=9781466953895

https://itunes.apple.com/us/book/pedographs-and-gait-analysis/id554516085?mt=11

-Hardcopy available from our publisher:
http://bookstore.trafford.com/Products/SKU-000155825/Pedographs-and-Gait-Analysis.aspx

Show Notes:
Cold
Switching on a cold-shock protein may restore lost connections between brain cells & memory function in aging brain.  
http://www.bbc.com/news/health-30812438

-“Connections between brain cells – called synapses – are lost early on in several neurodegenerative conditions, and this exciting study has shown for the first time that switching on a cold-shock protein called RBM3 can prevent these losses.
http://www.pnas.org/content/111/20/7379.abstract

New study in mice in the inaugural issue of Brain Plasticity reports that new brain cell formation is enhanced by running.
http://neurosciencenews.com/neurogenesis-exercise-memory-3165/

Walking changes our mental state, and our mental state changes our walking.  60 sec audio clip.
http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/bouncy-gait-improves-mood/

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/…/151119122246.htm

Walking. You don’t have to have the pedal to the metal.
"Those who walked an average of seven blocks per day or more had a 36%, 54% and 47% lower risk of CHD, stroke and total CVD, respectively, compared to those who walked up to five blocks per week.”

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/…/151119122246.htm
New proprio study:
http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v18/n12/abs/nn.4162.html
Piezo2 is the principal mechanotransduction channel for proprioception
Seung-Hyun Woo et al,
Nature Neuroscience 18, 1756–1762 (2015) doi:10.1038/nn.4162Received 14 July 2015 Accepted 13 October 2015 Published online 09 November 2015

Magnesium intake higher than 250 mg/day associated with a 24% increase in leg power & 2.7% increase in muscle mass.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jbmr.2692/full

Dietary Magnesium Is Positively Associated With Skeletal Muscle Power and Indices of Muscle Mass and May Attenuate the Association Between Circulating C-Reactive Protein and Muscle Mass in Women

Ailsa A Welch et al.
http://www.readcube.com/articles/10.1002%2Fjbmr.2692?r3_referer=wol&tracking_action=preview_click&show_checkout=1&purchase_referrer=t.co&purchase_site_license=LICENSE_DENIED

Gray Cook
https://duker2p.wordpress.com/2015/11/16/illuminating-insights-gray-cook-part-1/

Carries, lots of carries
https://www.facebook.com/otpbooks/videos/1004044686323688/

Welcome to Monday and News You Can Use. Got Arm swing? This exercise, borrowed from Shirley Saurmann can be a great adjunct to your rehab program, dispensed with some muscle physiology : )

Do it on your self
Try it on a client
Teach someone else

More on Stretching? Enough already, eh?

The last few weeks , we have been talking about techniques to improve your (or your clients) stretching experience. 1st, we talked about reciprocal inhibition here. Next we talked about post isometric inhibition here. The we spoke about the symmetrical tonic neck reflex (response) here. If there is a symmetrical tonic neck reflex, then there must be an asymmetrical one as well, eh? That is the topic of todays discussion

The asymmetrical tonic neck reflex was 1st described by Magnus and de Kleyn in 1912 (1). Like in the pictures above, when the head is rotated to one side, there is ipsilateral extension of the upper and lower extremity on that side, and flexion of the contralateral (the side AWAY from where you are rotating) upper and lower extremity. Take a few minutes to see the subtleness of the reflex in the pictures above. Now think about how this occurs in your clients/patients.  The reflex is everywhere!

The reflex persists into adulthood (2) and is modulated by both eye movement and muscular activity (3). When there is neurological compromise, the reflex can be more prevalent, and it seems to arise from the joint mechanoreceptors in the neck and its connection to the reticular formation of the brainstem (4). It may modulate blood flow and cardiovascular activity as well (5). 

So, how can we take advantage of this? We could follow in the footsteps of Berta Bobath (6) and incorporate these into our rehabilitation programs, which we have done, quite successfully. But rather than read a whole book, lets talk about how you could incorporate this into your stretching program. 

Let’s say you want to stretch the right hamstring:

  • actively rotating the head to the right (see reference 3) facilitates the right tricep and right quadricep AND facilitates the left bicep and left hamstring
  • through reciprocal inhibition, this would inhibit the right bicep and hamstring AND left tricep and left quadricep
  • To get a little more out of the stretch, you could actively contract the right tricep and quadricep (MORE reciprocal inhibition), amplifying the effect

We encourage you to try this, both on yourself and your clients. It really works!

Wow, isn’t neurology cool? And you thought it was only for geeks!

The Gait Guys. Giving you info you can use in a practical manner, each and every post. Be a geek. Spread the word. 

  1. http://www.worldneurologyonline.com/article/arthur-simons-tonic-neck-reflexes-hemiplegic-persons/#sthash.6QS3Eat3.dpuf 
  2. Bruijn SM1, Massaad F, Maclellan MJ, Van Gestel L, Ivanenko YP, Duysens J. Are effects of the symmetric and asymmetric tonic neck reflexes still visible in healthy adults?Neurosci Lett. 2013 Nov 27;556:89-92. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2013.10.028. Epub 2013 Oct

  3. Le Pellec A1, Maton B. Influence of tonic neck reflexes on the upper limb stretch reflex in man. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 1996 Jun;6(2):73-82.

  4. Michael D. Ellis, Justin Drogos, Carolina Carmona, Thierry Keller, Julius P. A. Dewal Neck rotation modulates flexion synergy torques, indicating an ipsilateral reticulospinal source for impairment in stroke Journal of NeurophysiologyDec 2012,108(11)3096-3104;DOI: 10.1152/jn.01030.2011

  5. Hervé Normand, Olivier Etard and Pierre Denise Otolithic and tonic neck receptors control of limb blood flow in humans J Appl Physiol  82:1734-1738, 1997.

  6. Berta Bobath, Chartered Society of Physiotherapy (Great Britain)  Abnormal postural reflex activity caused by brain lesions Aspen Systems Corp. Rockville, MD, 1985 –

More Tricks for stretching, part 3

We have been talking about ways to enhance stretching, talking about taking avvantage of reciprocal inhibition (please see part 1 here) and autogenic  (or post isometric) inhibition (please see part 2 here). 

Before we talk about this next one, we need to give you a little background (neurologically speaking). 

Take a look at the picture above and note the posturing of the baby in the 2 positions. These neurological reflexes (or postures) are called symmetrical tonic neck reflexes or responses (STNR’s for short) and were described in animals and men by Magnus and de Kleyn in 1912 (1). This work was later studied and reported by by Arthur Simons in 1916  (2) and later by Francis Walshe in 1923 (3). These were later made popular by Berta and Karl Bobath in the 70’s (who studied Walshes work), whom they are often attributed to (4). 

You next question is “Do these persist into healthy adulthood”? and the answer is a resounding YES (5).

Take a look at the picture above again and note the following: 

  • When the neck is flexed, the fore limbs flex (and the muscles facilitating that, bicep, brachialis, anterior deltoid are contracting) and the hind limbs are extending (relatively), with the glutes maximus, quadriceps, foot dorsiflexors contracting.

  • Note that when the head is extended, the forelimbs are extended and the hind limbs flexed. Think about the muscles involved. Upper extremity tricep, anconeus, posterior deltoid, lower back extensors, hamstrings and foot plantar flexors facilitated.

The reflex is based on the mechanoreceptors in the neck articulations and muscles and are frequently used by us and many others in the rehabilitation field. Generally speaking, looking up facilitates things which make you extend above T12, and flex below T12. Looking down facilitates flexion above T12 and extension below. 

We would encourage you at this point to “assume” these positions and feel the muscles which are active and at rest.

So, how can we take advantage of these while stretching? 

Think about your head position:

  •  If you are standing up and hinging at the hips to stretch your hamstrings (notice we did not say “bent at the waist”; there is a BIG difference in shear forces applied to your lumbar spine) you would probably want your neck bent forward, as this would fire your quads which would in turn ALSO inhibit your hamstrings, in addition to the STNR inhibiting the hamstring. 

  • If you were in a hip flexor stretch position, you would want you head up, looking at the ceiling to take advantage of the reflex. 

We are confident you can think of many more applications of this reflex and trust that you will, as it can apply to both upper and lower extremity stretches. Just remember that this reflex is symmetrical and will affect BOTH sides. Of course, there are reflexes that only effect things unilaterally, but that is the subject of another post. 

The Gait Guys. Helping make you better at what you do for yourself and others and assisting you on using the neurology that God gave you. 

  1. http://www.worldneurologyonline.com/article/arthur-simons-tonic-neck-reflexes-hemiplegic-persons/#sthash.6QS3Eat3.dpuf 
  2. Simons A (1923) Kopfhaltung and Muskeltonus. Ges.Z. Neurol.Psychiatr. 80: 499-549.
  3. Walshe FMR (1923) On certain or postural reflexes in hemiplegia, with special reference to the so-called “associated movements.” Brain 46: 1-37. 
  4. Janet M. Howle . Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex in Neuro-developmental Treatment Approach: Theoretical Foundations and Principles of Clinical Practice.   NeuroDevelopmental Treatment, 2002  p 341 ISBN 0972461507, 9780972461504
  5. Bruijn SM1, Massaad F, Maclellan MJ, Van Gestel L, Ivanenko YP, Duysens J. Are effects of the symmetric and asymmetric tonic neck reflexes still visible in healthy adults?Neurosci Lett. 2013 Nov 27;556:89-92. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2013.10.028. Epub 2013 Oct 21.