Exploring the Links Between Human Movement, Biomechanics & Gait
Tag: internal rotation
Thoughts on the adductor grouping to ponder.
I found this while prepping for the dry needling course I am teaching this weekend and thought you may enjoy it. Though the primary actions of the addcutors are well established, secondary actions (whether they are acually internal or external rotators) remains to be elucidated.
Here is a nice abstract that supports the dynamic function of them as external rotators (eccentrically) during gait.
“Anatomical texts agree on most muscle actions, with a notable exception being the action of the adductors of the hip in the transverse plane. Some texts list an action of the adductor brevis (AB), adductor longus (AL), and/or adductor magnus (AM) as internal rotation, whereas others list an action of external rotation. The purpose of this article is to present a functional model in support of the action of external rotation. Transverse plane motion of the femur at the hip during normal gait is driven by subtalar joint motion during the loading response, terminal stance, and preswing phases. During the loading response, the subtalar joint pronates, and the talus adducts. This talar adduction results in the lower leg, and subsequently the femur, internally rotating. During terminal stance and preswing, the opposite occurs; the subtalar joint supinates as the talus abducts in response to forces generated from the lower extremity and in the forefoot. Electromyographic (EMG) studies indicate varied activity in the AB, AL, and AM during the loading response, terminal stance, and preswing phases of the gait cycle. A careful analysis of EMG activity and kinematics during gait suggests that, in the transverse plane, the adductors may be eccentrically controlling internal rotation of the femur at the hip during the loading response, rather than the previously reported role as concentric internal rotators. In addition, these muscles may also concentrically produce external rotation of the femur at the hip during terminal stance and preswing. Physical therapists should consider this important function of the hip adductors during gait when evaluating a patient and designing an intervention program. Anatomical texts should consider listing the concentric action of external rotation of the femur at the hip as one action of the AB, AL, and AM, particularly when starting from the anatomic position.”
Leighton RD. A functional model to describe the action of the adductor muscles at the hip in the transverse plane.Physiother Theory Pract. 2006 Nov;22(5):251-62.Leighton RD. A functional model to describe the action of the adductor muscles at the hip in the transverse plane.Physiother Theory Pract. 2006 Nov;22(5):251-62.
We have been following the natural development of this little guy for some time now. For a review, please see here (1 year ago) and here (2 years ago) for our previous posts on him.
In the top 2 shots, the legs are neutral. The 3rd and 4th shots are full internal rotation of the left and right hips respectively. The last 2 shots are full external rotation of the hips.
Well, what do you think now?
We remember that this child has external tibial torsion and pes planus. As seen in the supine photo, when the knees face forward, the feet have an increased progression angle (they turn out). We are born with some degree / or little to none, tibial torsion and the in-toeing of infants is due to the angle of the talar neck (30 degrees) and femoral anteversion (the angle of the neck of the femur and the distal end is 35 degrees). The lower limbs rotate outward at a rate of approximately 1.5 degrees per year to reach a final angle of 22 degrees….. that is of course if the normal de rotation that a child’s lower limbs go through occurs timely and completely.
He still has a pronounced valgus angle at the the knees (need a review on Q angles? click here). We remember that the Q angle is negative at birth (ie genu varum) progresses to a maximal angulation of 10-15 degrees at about 3.5 years, then settles down to 5-7 degrees by the time they have stopped growing. He is almost 4 and it ihas lessend since the last check to 15 degrees.
His internal rotation of the hips should be about 40 degrees, which it appears to be. External rotation should match; his is a little more limited than internal rotation, L > R. Remember that the femoral neck angle will be reducing at the rate of about 1.5 degrees per year from 35 degrees to about 12 in the adult (ie, they are becoming less anteverted).
At the same time, the tibia is externally rotating (normal tibial version) from 0 to about 22 degrees. He has fairly normal external tibial version on the right and still has some persistent internal tibial version on the left. Picture the hips rotating in and the lower leg rotating out. In this little fellow, his tibia is outpacing the hips. Nothing to worry about, but we do need to keep and eye on it.
What do we tell his folks?
He is developing normally and has improved significantly since his original presentation to the office
Having the child walk barefoot has been a good thing and has provided some intrinsic strength to the feet
He needs to continue to walk barefoot and when not, wear shoes with little torsional rigidity, to encourage additional intrinsic strength to the feet
He should limit “W” sitting, as this will tend to increase the genu valgus present
We gave him 1 leg balancing “games” and encouraged agility activities, like balance beam, hopping, skipping and jumping on each leg individually
We are the Gait Guys, promoting gait and foot literacy, each and every post.