Leg Pain? Are you SURE its a disc?

Gluteus minimus dysfunction is often present in gait disorders, including stance phase mechanical problems, since it fires from initial contact through pre swing, like it better known counterpart, the gluteus medius. It is interesting that the trigger point referral pattern of the gluteus minimus has a sciatic distribution, whereas the gluteus medius is more in the local area of the hip. 

 There are several, well known effects of dry needling:

decreased central sensitization

increased range of motion

changes in muscle activation

changes in the chemical environment surrounding a trigger point

changes in local and referred pain

and now we can add (not surprisingly), changes in autonomic function. The mechanism probably has something to do with pain and the reticular formation sending information down the cord via the lateral cell column (intermediolateral cell nucleus) or pain (nociceptive) afferents sending a collateral in the spinal cord to the dysfunctional muscle (Dr Ivo talks about these mechanisms in his dry needling and acupuncture lectures). 

Conclusions

The presence of active TrPs within the gluteus minimus muscle among subacute sciatica subjects was confirmed. Every TrPs-positive sciatica patient presented DN related vasodilatation in the area of referred pain. The presence of vasodilatation suggests the involvement of sympathetic nerve activity in myofascial pain pathomechanism.

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015; 15: 72. Published online 2015 Mar 20. doi:  10.1186/s12906-015-0587-6PMCID: PMC4426539 Intensive vasodilatation in the sciatic pain area after dry needling

link to full text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4426539/

When was the last time you thought about the pairing of your glutes and your quadratus? This is an important mechanism, especially when ascending and descending stairs,

Here is a great exercises to help with that:

Heat Exertion and Gait Decline

Changes in gait characteristics are found when exertional heat stress is experienced during prolonged load carriage.  As heat stress increased, step width decreased while percent crossover steps increased. Reduced stance time variability, step width variability, and percent crossover step were observed.  These are frontal plane gait parameters for the most part. 

Think about these things during your long summer run or as you go deeper into those last miles of your long run.  Simple muscular fatigue in the frontal plane hip-pelvis stabilizers are going to render the same results.  This is quite possibly why many problems and injuries crop up in the latter miles of your run. 

Reference:

Gait Posture.

2016 Jan;43:17-23. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.10.010. Epub 2015 Oct 23.Using gait parameters to detect fatigue and responses to ice slurry during prolonged load carriage. Tay CSLee JKTeo YSQ Z Foo PTan PMKong PW

Ankle spains and hip abductors

We see it ALL THE TIME. But sometimes it is nice to point out the obvious, just in case you are not looking for it.
“Conclusions: Our subjects with unilateral chronic ankle sprains had weaker hip abduction strength and less plantar-flexion range of motion on the involved sides. Clinicians should consider exercises to increase hip abduction strength when developing rehabilitation programs for patients with ankle sprains.”-Friel et al
Dr. Allen: if the hip abductors are weak, the leg will posture more adducted (ie, cross over type pattern) and this places the foot more directly below the body midline plumb, this will posture the foot in inversion and thus at greater risk for future inversion sprains.  This sets up the vicious cycle of hip abductor weakness, frontal plane drift of pelvis, inversion of the foot and more ankle sprain risks/events.  The cycle must be broken. The hip must be addressed. That lateral chain must be restored all the way up from the foot.  All stuff you likely already know, but good to find another study to validate.

Dr. Allen

J Athl Train. 2006; 41(1): 74–78.PMCID: PMC1421486Ipsilateral Hip Abductor Weakness After Inversion Ankle SprainKaren Friel,Nancy McLean,Christine Myers, and Maria Caceres
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1421486/

How relaxed, or shall we say “sloppy” is your gait ?

Look at this picture, the blurred left swing leg tells you this client has been photographed during gait motion. 

Now, visualize a line up from that right foot through the spine. You will see that it is clearly under the center/middle of the pelvis. But of course, it is easier to stand on one leg (as gait is merely transferring from one single leg stance to the other repeatedly) when your body mass is directly over the foot.  To do this the pelvis has to drift laterally over the stance leg side.  Sadly though, you should be able to have enough gluteal and abdominal cylinder strength to stack the foot and knee over the hip. This would mean that the pelvis plumb line should always fall between the feet, which is clearly not the case here.  This is sloppy weak lazy gait. It is likely an engrained habit in most people, but that does not make it right. It is pathology, in time something will likely have to give. 

This is the cross over gait we have beaten to a pulp here at The Gait Guys over and over … . . and over.   This gait this gait, this single photo, means this client is engaging movement into the frontal plane too much, they have drifted to the right. We call it frontal plane drift. To prevent it, it means you have to have an extra bit more of lateral line strength in the gluteus medius and lateral abdominal sling to fend off pathology. You have to be able to find functional stability in the stacked posture, and this can take some training and time.  Make no mistake, this is a faulty movement pattern, even if there is not pain, this is not efficient motor patterning and something will have to give. Whether that is lateral foot pain from more supination strategizing, more tone in the ITB perhaps causing lateral knee or hip pain, a compensation in arms swing or thoracic spine rotation or head tilt  … … something has to give, something has to compensate. 

So, how sloppy is your gait ? 

Do you kick or scuff the inside of your opposite shoe ? Can you hear your pants rub together ? Just clues. You must test the patterns, make no assumptions, please.

Shawn Allen, one of the gait guys

Have a patient with weak hip abductors? Here is a great closed chain gluteus medius exercise called “"hip airplanes” we utilize all the time. Try it in yourself, then try it on your patients and clients, then teach others : )

Podcast #99: How foot placement, the glutes and cross over gait all come together and make sense.

Topics: Plus, How foot placement, the glutes and cross over gait all come together and make sense. Plus, discussions on vibration,proprioception, cerebellum and movement.

Show Sponsors:

*newbalancechicago.com

*Rocktape.com

A. Link to our server: http://traffic.libsyn.com/thegaitguys/pod_99final.mp3

Podcast Direct Download: http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-99-how-foot-placement-the-glutes-and-cross-over-gait-all-come-together-and-make-sense

Other Gait Guys stuff

B. iTunes link:
https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-gait-guys-podcast/id559864138
C. Gait Guys online /download store (National Shoe Fit Certification & more !)
http://store.payloadz.com/results/results.aspx?m=80204
D. other web based Gait Guys lectures:
Monthly lectures at : www.onlinece.com type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen, ”Biomechanics”

-Our Book: Pedographs and Gait Analysis and Clinical Case Studies
Electronic copies available here:

-Amazon/Kindle:
http://www.amazon.com/Pedographs-Gait-Analysis-Clinical-Studies-ebook/dp/B00AC18M3E

-Barnes and Noble / Nook Reader:
http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/pedographs-and-gait-analysis-ivo-waerlop-and-shawn-allen/1112754833?ean=9781466953895

https://itunes.apple.com/us/book/pedographs-and-gait-analysis/id554516085?mt=11

-Hardcopy available from our publisher:
http://bookstore.trafford.com/Products/SKU-000155825/Pedographs-and-Gait-Analysis.aspx

Show notes:

Evaluating the Differential Electrophysiological Effects of the Focal Vibrator on the Tendon and Muscle Belly in Healthy People ARTICLE in ANNALS OF REHABILITATION MEDICINE · AUGUST 2014 DOI: 10.5535/arm.2014.38.4.494 · Source: PubMed

J Neurophysiol. 2014 Jul 15;112(2):374-83. doi: 10.1152/jn.00138.2014. Epub 2014 Apr 30. A neuromechanical strategy for mediolateral foot placement in walking humans.  Rankin BL

J Neurophysiol. 2015 Oct;114(4):2220-9. doi: 10.1152/jn.00551.2015. Epub 2015 Aug 19.

Hip proprioceptive feedback influences the control of mediolateral stability during human walking.

Roden-Reynolds DC1, Walker MH1, Wasserman CR1, Dean JC2.

Eur Spine J. 2015 May 26. [Epub ahead of print]
Prevalence of gluteus medius weakness in people with chronic low back pain compared to healthy controls.
Cooper NA1, Scavo KM, Strickland KJ, Tipayamongkol N, Nicholson JD, Bewyer DC, Sluka KA.

Prog Brain Res. 2004;143:353-66. Role of the cerebellum in the control and adaptation of gait in health and disease. Thach WT1, Bastian AJ.

You’d have to be smart to walk this lazy, and people are

Research suggests that humans are wired for laziness

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/09/150910131451.htm#.VfWquNKaf3s.facebook

Jessica C. Selinger, Shawn M. O’Connor, Jeremy D. Wong, J. Maxwell Donelan. Humans Can Continuously Optimize Energetic Cost during Walking. Current Biology, 2015; DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2015.08.016