Take good look at these gals. The gal on the left (in blue) looks like she has a level pelvis, but look at the upper body. She’s leaning to the left and has a great deal of torso rotation backward. One of the clues is the abduction of her left arm. Also note how her right arm crosses across her body. We wonder how she looks in right foot stance.

The gal on the left (in red) has a subtle dip of the right side of her pelvis and also has over rotation of her upper body. Her right on crossing the body is a good reason to believe she will have a crossover gait if viewed from straight on.

While both of these gals may have adequate strength, we question how much endurance they have as well as available rotation in the hips and lumbar spine.

This is an excellent, referenced review of some of the current literature and controversy of strength and injury risk. A good read and certainly worth your time to get caught up on what’s current. We would love to see you study on endurance and injury risk.

“While muscle strength may improve tolerance of loads during running, another reason for inconsistencies in the reported relationships between strength and injury risk may be that strength is typically assessed isometrically. It’s unclear how much of an influence peak isometric strength has on the dynamic task of running, and specifically on prolonged running in the presence of muscular fatigue. Schmitz et al found that, while isometric hip strength values were similar between novice and experienced runners, hip internal rotation motion during running was higher in the novice runners, suggesting isometric strength may not correlate strongly with muscular control and kinematics during running.”

http://lermagazine.com/article/lower-extremity-strength-and-injury-risk-in-runners

Podcast 87: Podcast 87: The Kenyan’s Running Brain & “The” Anterior Compartment.

Plus, Some unknown facts about going minimalism and barefoot. We POUND anterior compartment strength today gang ! Hope you enjoy !

Show sponsors:
www.newbalancechicago.com

A. Link to our server: 
http://traffic.libsyn.com/thegaitguys/pod_87final.mp3

Direct Download: 
http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-87

Other Gait Guys stuff

B. iTunes link:
https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-gait-guys-podcast/id559864138

C. Gait Guys online /download store (National Shoe Fit Certification and more !) :
http://store.payloadz.com/results/results.aspx?m=80204

D. other web based Gait Guys lectures:
Monthly lectures at : www.onlinece.com   type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen,  ”Biomechanics”

Show notes:

On high heels and short muscles: A multiscale model for sarcomere loss in the gastrocnemius muscle

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022519314006262

The Brain Needs Oxygen

Maintained cerebral oxygenation during maximal self-paced exercise in elite Kenyan runners.

http://www.runnersworld.com/racing/the-brain-needs-oxygen
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25414248
J Appl Physiol (1985). 2014 Nov 20:jap.00909.2014. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00909.2014. [Epub ahead of print]

The texting lane in China
http://www.theguardian.com/world/shortcuts/2014/sep/15/china-mobile-phone-lane-distracted-walking-pedestrians

Dialogue on endurance training,
NeuroRehabilitation. 2006;21(1):43-50. 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16720937

Effects of dorsiflexor endurance exercises on foot drop secondary to multiple sclerosis.  Mount J1, Dacko S.

APOS Therapy
we were asked out opinion on this
http://apostherapy.com/

Foot instrinsic dialogue
Motor Control. 2014 Jul 15. [Epub ahead of print]

Quantifying the Contributions of a Flexor Digitorum Brevis Muscle on Postural Stability.
Okai LA1, Kohn AF.

There are many factors in adults that impair gait. It is not all biomechanical. This is part of our ongoing dialogue on the aging population and why gait impairments and falls are so prevalent.
Acta Bioeng Biomech. 2014;16(1):3-9.
Differences in gait pattern between the elderly and the young during level walking under low illumination.
Choi JS, Kang DW, Shin YH, Tack GR.


Podcast 56: Motor Chunking, Gait Assessments & More

A. Link to our server:

Direct Download: 

http://traffic.libsyn.com/thegaitguys/pod_59finall.mp3

Permalink: 

http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-56-motor-chunking-gait-assessments-more

B. iTunes link:

https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-gait-guys-podcast/id559864138

C. Gait Guys online /download store (National Shoe Fit Certification and more !) :

http://store.payloadz.com/results/results.aspx?m=80204

D. other web based Gait Guys lectures:

www.onlinece.com   type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen,  ”Biomechanics”

______________

Today’s Show notes:

The Science of “Chunking,” Working Memory, and How Pattern Recognition Fuels Creativity
http://www.brainpickings.org/index.php/2012/09/04/the-ravenous-brain-daniel-bor/
Learning a locomotor task: with or without errors?
http://www.jneuroengrehab.com/content/11/1/25/abstract
How we go about a gait assessement:
 
toes:

Podcast 56: Motor Chunking, Gait Assessments & More

A. Link to our server:

Direct Download: 

http://traffic.libsyn.com/thegaitguys/pod_59finall.mp3

Permalink: 

http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-56-motor-chunking-gait-assessments-more

B. iTunes link:

https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-gait-guys-podcast/id559864138

C. Gait Guys online /download store (National Shoe Fit Certification and more !) :

http://store.payloadz.com/results/results.aspx?m=80204

D. other web based Gait Guys lectures:

www.onlinece.com   type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen,  ”Biomechanics”

______________

Today’s Show notes:

The Science of “Chunking,” Working Memory, and How Pattern Recognition Fuels Creativity
http://www.brainpickings.org/index.php/2012/09/04/the-ravenous-brain-daniel-bor/
Learning a locomotor task: with or without errors?
http://www.jneuroengrehab.com/content/11/1/25/abstract
How we go about a gait assessement:
 
toes:

Take this simple test. 

Want to be faster? Better incorporate some proprioceptive training into your plan. It is the 1st part of our mantra: Skill, Endurance, and Strength (in that order). Proprioceptive training appears to be more important that strength or endurance training from an injury rehabilitation perspective as well part of an injury prevention program

 What is proprioception? It is body position awareness; ie: knowing what your limbs are doing without having to look at them.

Take this simple test:

  • Stand in a doorway with your shoes off. Keep your arms up at your sides so that you can brace yourself in case you start to fall. Lift your toes slightly so that only your foot tripod remains on the ground (ie the base of the big toe, the base of the little toe and the center of the heel.). Are you able to balance without difficulty? Good, all 3 systems (vision, vestibular and proprioceptive) are go.
  • Now close your eyes, taking away vision from the 3 systems that keep us upright in the gravitational plane. Are you able to balance for 30 seconds? If so, your vestibular and proprioceptive systems are intact.
  • Now open your eyes and look up at the ceiling. Provided you can balance without falling, now close your eyes. Extending your neck 60 degrees just took out the lateral semicircular canals of the vestibular system (see here for more info). Are you still able to balance for 30 seconds? If so, congrats; your proprioceptive system (the receptors in the joints, ligaments and muscles) is working great. If not, looks like you have some work to do. You can begin with exercises we use every day by clicking here.

Proprioception should be the 1st part of any training and/or rehabilitation program. If you don’t have a good framework to hang the rest of your training on, then you are asking for trouble. 

The Gait Guys. Your proprioceptive mentors. We want you to succeed!

Podcast 34: Chimp feet, Marathon Monks & Statin drugs

podcast link:

http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-34-chimp-feet-marathon-monks-statin-drugs

iTunes link:

http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-33-heart-beats-toe-walking-crawling

Gait Guys online /download store:

http://store.payloadz.com/results/results.aspx?m=80204

other web based Gait Guys lectures:

www.onlinece.com   type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen  Biomechanics

Today’s show notes:

 1.Did Rock Climbing Help Us Start Walking Upright?   By Shaunacy Ferro A new theory suggests humans became bipedal so that we could scramble up rugged terrain.
http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2013-05/did-rock-climbing-help-us-start-walking-upright?src=SOC&dom=tw

2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaih%C5%8Dgy%C5%8D

The Running Marathon monks of Mt. Hiei

The Kaihōgyō is a set of the ascetic physical endurance trainings for which the Japanese “marathon monks” of Mt. Hiei are known. These Japanese monks are from the Shugendō and the Tendai school of Buddhism, a denomination brought to Japan by the monk Saichō in 806 from China.


3. http://www.runnersworld.com/general-interest/do-you-have-chimpanzee-feet

Do you have Chimpanzee feet ?

About 8% of people tested by Boston University researchers had midfoot flexibility of the sort that apes use to climb trees, according to a study published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropolgy.

4. Statins Linked With Risk of Musculoskeletal Injury

Michael O’Riordan

http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/805369?src=wnl_edit_medn_wir&spon=34

http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1691918

Can Statins Cut the Benefits of Exercise?

By GRETCHEN REYNOLDS

http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/05/22/can-statins-curb-the-benefits-of-exercise/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23583255

5. Shoes: The Primal Professional.com

http://theprimalprofessional.com/products/pre-order-the-primal-professional

http://well.bradrourke.com/2013/05/my-new-primal-dress-shoes/

6. Hallux valgus and lesser toe deformities are highly heritable in adult men and women: The Framingham foot study

Marian T. Hannan
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/acr.22040/abstract;jsessionid=99975015C3EE5678E6351273C2CD42A0.d02t04

7. Forefoot strikers exhibit lower running-induced knee loading than rearfoot strikers

Kulmala, Juha-Pekka; Avela, Janne; Pasanen, Kati; Parkkari, Jari

http://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Abstract/publishahead/Forefoot_strikers_exhibit_lower_running_induced.98324.aspx

8. Why Where You Land On Your Foot Isn’t That Important

http://www.kinetic-revolution.com/why-where-you-land-on-your-foot-isnt-that-important/

Podcast 34: Chimp feet, Marathon Monks & Statin drugs

podcast link:

http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-34-chimp-feet-marathon-monks-statin-drugs

iTunes link:

http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-33-heart-beats-toe-walking-crawling

Gait Guys online /download store:

http://store.payloadz.com/results/results.aspx?m=80204

other web based Gait Guys lectures:

www.onlinece.com   type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen  Biomechanics

Today’s show notes:

 1.Did Rock Climbing Help Us Start Walking Upright?   By Shaunacy Ferro A new theory suggests humans became bipedal so that we could scramble up rugged terrain.
http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2013-05/did-rock-climbing-help-us-start-walking-upright?src=SOC&dom=tw

2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaih%C5%8Dgy%C5%8D

The Running Marathon monks of Mt. Hiei

The Kaihōgyō is a set of the ascetic physical endurance trainings for which the Japanese “marathon monks” of Mt. Hiei are known. These Japanese monks are from the Shugendō and the Tendai school of Buddhism, a denomination brought to Japan by the monk Saichō in 806 from China.


3. http://www.runnersworld.com/general-interest/do-you-have-chimpanzee-feet

Do you have Chimpanzee feet ?

About 8% of people tested by Boston University researchers had midfoot flexibility of the sort that apes use to climb trees, according to a study published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropolgy.

4. Statins Linked With Risk of Musculoskeletal Injury

Michael O’Riordan

http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/805369?src=wnl_edit_medn_wir&spon=34

http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1691918

Can Statins Cut the Benefits of Exercise?

By GRETCHEN REYNOLDS

http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/05/22/can-statins-curb-the-benefits-of-exercise/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23583255

5. Shoes: The Primal Professional.com

http://theprimalprofessional.com/products/pre-order-the-primal-professional

http://well.bradrourke.com/2013/05/my-new-primal-dress-shoes/

6. Hallux valgus and lesser toe deformities are highly heritable in adult men and women: The Framingham foot study

Marian T. Hannan
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/acr.22040/abstract;jsessionid=99975015C3EE5678E6351273C2CD42A0.d02t04

7. Forefoot strikers exhibit lower running-induced knee loading than rearfoot strikers

Kulmala, Juha-Pekka; Avela, Janne; Pasanen, Kati; Parkkari, Jari

http://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Abstract/publishahead/Forefoot_strikers_exhibit_lower_running_induced.98324.aspx

8. Why Where You Land On Your Foot Isn’t That Important

http://www.kinetic-revolution.com/why-where-you-land-on-your-foot-isnt-that-important/

Podcast #30: Running your heart out ?

podcast link: 

http://thegaitguys.libsyn.com/podcast-30-running-your-heart-out

iTunes link:

https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-gait-guys-podcast/id559864138

Gait Guys online /download store:

http://store.payloadz.com/results/results.aspx?m=80204

other web based Gait Guys lectures:

www.onlinece.com   type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen  Biomechanics

Today’s show notes:

Neuroscience Piece:

1. Nanosponges could soak up deadly infections like MRSA from your bloodstream
http://www.theverge.com/2013/4/15/4225834/nanosponges-kill-deadly-bacteria-mrsa-clinical-trial

2. iPhone-controlled bionic hands allow father to hold daughter’s hand for first time since accident
http://9to5mac.com/2013/04/15/iphone-controlled-bionic-hands-allow-father-to-hold-daughters-hand-for-first-time-since-accident/

3. The science behind Obama’s BRAIN project.
http://blog.brainfacts.org/2013/04/the-science-behind-obamas-brain-project/#.UXQraILeb8g

4. Blog reader asks:
I’ve noticed that I’m developing some calluses – on the outside of my big toes. They don’t hurt normally but if I walk for awhile or run a few miles, those (I’m assuming) calluses really starts to ache. Any suggestions for what I can do to help with that?

5. FACEBOOK readers asks:
Hello, I am new to “The Gait Guys,” and was wondering if you have done any blogs about Morton’s Neuromas and bunion treatments. I’m looking for ways other than surgery to fix this ailment. I would love to be able to run and exercise again. Thank you.
Jared

6. What Cardiologists Tell Their Friends

http://shine.yahoo.com/healthy-living/cardiologists-tell-friends-134500478.html
“Go easy with the exercise”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22953596

Mo Med. 2012 Jul-Aug;109(4):312-21.

Cardiovascular damage resulting from chronic excessive endurance exercise.

7. Brisk Walking Equals Running for Heart Health: Study

http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=168974
By Steven Reinberg

8. Shoes:

9. Runners Can Improve Health and Performance With Less Training, Study Shows

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/05/120531102205.htm

10. A Lesson in Neurology from Jimi Hendrix

by ;luke barnes
letterstonature.wordpress.com/2007/11/30/a-lesson-in-neurology-from-jimi-hendrix

On the topic of endurance training…..

On the topic of endurance training (which we discussed on this weeks PODcast, forthcoming in the next day or so; we have both been extraordinarily busy in our clinics); if you are a well trained athlete (ie endurance junkie), how might this effect your running gait?

So, you run 103 miles with an elevation change of over 31,000 feet, how do you think you would fare? These folks were tested pre and 3 hours post race on a 22 foot long pressure walkway at about 7.5 miles per hour. Here’s how this group of 18 folks did:

  1. increased step frequency
  2. decreased “aerial” time
  3. no change in contact time
  4. decrease in downward displacement of the center of mass
  5. decrease in peak vertical ground reactive force
  6. increased vertical oscillation
  7. leg stiffness remained unchanged

So what does this tell us?

  • wow, that is a lot of vertical
  • holy smokes, that is really far
  • don’t know how I would do with a race like that
  • they are fatigued (1, 2, 6)
  • they are trying to attenuate impact forces (2, 3, 4, 5, 7)

The system is trying to adapt the best it can. If you were to do a standard hip screen test (like we spoke about here)  you would probably see increased horizontal drift due to proprioceptive fatigue. Remember that proprioception (our bodies ability to sense its position in space) makes the world go round. Proprioception is dependent on an intact visual system (see our post yesterday) , an intact vestibular system and muscle and joint mechanoreceptors functioning appropriately). We would add here that central nervous system fatigue (ie central processing both at the cord and in the cortex) would probably play a role as well.

The take home message? The human machine is a neuro mechanical marvel and much more complex than having the right shoe or the right running technique. Training often makes us more competent and efficient, but everything has it limits.

The Gait Guys. Making it real with each and every post.

all material copyright 2013 The Gait Guys/ The Homunculus Group

J Biomech. 2011 Apr 7;44(6):1104-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2011.01.028. Epub 2011 Feb 20.

Changes in running mechanics and spring-mass behavior induced by a mountain ultra-marathon race.

Source

Université de Lyon, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, France. jean.benoit.morin@univ-st-etienne.fr

Abstract

Changes in running mechanics and spring-mass behavior due to fatigue induced by a mountain ultra-marathon race (MUM, 166km, total positive and negative elevation of 9500m) were studied in 18 ultra-marathon runners. Mechanical measurements were undertaken pre- and 3h post-MUM at 12km h(-1) on a 7m long pressure walkway: contact (t(c)), aerial (t(a)) times, step frequency (f), and running velocity (v) were sampled and averaged over 5-8 steps. From these variables, spring-mass parameters of peak vertical ground reaction force (F(max)), vertical downward displacement of the center of mass (Δz), leg length change (ΔL), vertical (k(vert)) and leg (k(leg)) stiffness were computed. After the MUM, there was a significant increase in f (5.9±5.5%; P<0.001) associated with reduced t(a) (-18.5±17.4%; P<0.001) with no change in t(c), and a significant decrease in both Δz and F(max) (-11.6±10.5 and -6.3±7.3%, respectively; P<0.001). k(vert) increased by 5.6±11.7% (P=0.053), and k(leg) remained unchanged. These results show that 3h post-MUM, subjects ran with a reduced vertical oscillation of their spring-mass system. This is consistent with (i) previous studies concerning muscular structure/function impairment in running and (ii) the hypothesis that these changes in the running pattern could be associated with lower overall impact (especially during the braking phase) supported by the locomotor system at each step, potentially leading to reduced pain during running.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21342691

Phidippides cardiomyopathy, a condition caused by chronic excessive endurance exercise.

Phidippides cardiomyopathy, a condition caused by chronic excessive endurance exercise.