Podcast 33: Heart Beats, Toe walking & Crawling

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other web based Gait Guys lectures:

www.onlinece.com   type in Dr. Waerlop or Dr. Allen  Biomechanics

Today’s show notes:

Neuroscience Pieces:

1.Superhuman sight and hearing.


2. Kickstart device

Kickstart from Cadence Biomedical is designed to help improve the gait of people who have difficulty walking and help them regain their mobility and independence. But unlike its robotic cousins that are powered by weighty rechargeable batteries, the Kickstart is able to ditch the batteries altogether because it has no motors to power. Instead, it is purely mechanical and provides assistance by storing and releasing kinetic energy generated by a person when walking.

3. Bionic ear
Scientists have created a 3D-printed cartilage ear with an antenna that extends hearing far beyond the normal human range.
In general, there are mechanical and thermal challenges with interfacing electronic materials with biological materials,” said Michael McAlpine, an assistant professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at Princeton and the lead researcher. “Previously, researchers have suggested some strategies to tailor the electronics so that this merger is less awkward. That typically happens between a 2D sheet of electronics and a surface of the tissue. However, our work suggests a new approach — to build and grow the biology up with the electronics synergistically and in a 3D interwoven format.”



4. Blog reader asks:
I recently came across “The solitary externally rotated foot”, as well as the Cross Over Gait, and Applied Gait Hip Mechanics videos. First of all, your material very insightful, so thank you! I am an amateur runner that exhibits external foot rotation and cross over running, which I suspect causes my hip pain (where the GMed joins the femur) over long distances. Curiously, this pain completely disappears when running up hill. Is this an anomaly, or does the slope correct my gait somehow?

5. FACEBOOK readers asks:

  • HI: Can you tell us what role the gluteus medius plays in foot pronation. What if they are weak or tight? And how about the QL, too? Would a foot supinator have weakened QLs (they don’t get to work much) and a foot overpronator have over-worked/loaded QLs (controlling spin)? And hey, if I toss in functional scoliosis in the lumbar region to this mix, well, what a tight mess I have, eh? Any insights on how to become unscrewed?

6. Karis

  • Hi there, I’m sure you get 100,000 messages so thank you for your time for reading this! Today I had a revelation that I have external tibial torsion. After much googling about my knees turning in quite a lot when my feet are straight I finally found it! Then I found your blog on Tumblr and read all about it and watched the videos. I just wondered if you had any advice on running, I am keen to start running but I didn’t know whether to run with my feet sticking out as my natural position or anything else I should be doing? I also wondered if it can be corrected marginally by doing any strength exercises? Thank you for your help in advance! Karis


Some of the signs of overtraining may include an unexplained decrease in performance, changes in mood state, excessive fatigue, the need for additional sleep, frequent infections, continued muscle soreness and loss of training/competitive drive.

We have included an article that puts it into simple light for the athlete:

J Nov Physiother. 2013 Feb 16;3(125). pii: 11717.
8. Toe walking in children
In most cases no etiology of toe walking is found. The medical literature considers it abnormal if it persists after 3 years of age. Idiopathic Toe Walking (ITW) is considered a diagnosis of exclusion and is employed only when all other possibilities have been eliminated with a meticulous clinical examination and various investigations. If any etiology is found, the treatment should be first non operative
The differential diagnosis in children who walk on their toes includes mild spastic diplegia, congenital short achilles,  and idiopathic toe walking (ITW).  A reduced ankle range of motion is common……one just needs to find the source of the reduction…….meaning funcitonal,  ablative (structural). Reported treatments have included serial casting, Botulinum toxin type A or surgery to improve the ankle range of motion.  Is there an immediate impact of footwear, footwear with orthotics and whole body vibration on ITW to determine if any one intervention improves heel contact and spatial-temporal gait measures.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011 Mar 21;12:61. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-12-61.

9. Idiopathic toe-walking in children, adolescents and young adults: a matter of local or generalised stiffness?

Engelbert R


10. J Foot Ankle Res. 2010 Aug 16;3:16. doi: 10.1186/1757-1146-3-16.

Idiopathic toe walking and sensory processing dysfunction.

11. Crawling May Be Unnecessary for Normal Child Development?